A high-speed amphibious hovercraft PARMA 11 is designed to carry up to 950 kg of cargo or up to 10 passengers. The hovercraft belongs to the class of small-sized passenger hovercrafts and is intended for the carriage of passengers on water bodies in summer or winter, including with short-term landing. The boat can pass through the of overcoming smoothed ledges up to 60 cm high and not smoothed ones – up to 50 cm. The boat is able to reach speed of about 70 km / h on water.
Operation is permitted at an outside air temperature from -40 ° C to + 30 ° C and a maximum wind speed of up to 12 m / s at any time of the year during daylight hours. In all cases of load, the Hovercraft can be operated during daylight hours in water areas, with waves of no more than 1.2 m 1% security. Movement of the boat is allowed with the specified wave both in the air cushion mode and in the displacement mode. When driving on ice or snow-covered surfaces, operation is permitted on all bodies of water. Operation is allowed on any other flat solid surface, in extreme shallow water and swampy surface.
Главные размерения и характеристики
|Overall length of the hull, m||8.1|
|Extreme breadth of the hull (with hinged sections), m||4.1|
|Cushion height (clearance), m||0.5|
|Passenger-carrying capacity, people||10|
|Minimum crew, people||1|
|Service speed (on water), km / h||45|
|Maximum speed (on water), km / h||70|
|Service speed (on ice), km / h||50|
|Fuel reserve, l||300|
|Service fuel consumption on water, l / h||22|
|Endurance of fuel reserve, h||12|
|Safe wave height, m||1.2|
|Supervision (Option 1)||State Inspection of Small Vessels (SISV), small size vessel of special design up to 12 seats (HOVERCRAFT)|
|Supervision (Option 2)||River register, small size vessel of special design up to 12 seats (HOVERCRAFT), Category 3|
The hull of the vessel is made watertight, divided into 5 watertight compartments by 5 watertight bulkheads. As the material of the main body, set, foundations, sheet and profile rolled products from aluminum alloys are accepted. Flat products are used of the Amg5M brand, all-Union State Standard 21631-76. Profile rolled products of the Amg6M or D16T grade in accordance with all-Union State Standard 8617-75. The body of the hovercraft is riveted (with the exception of small parts made by welding). The tightness of the outer contour of the boat and the corresponding transverse bulkheads is ensured. The tightness test is carried out in accordance with the test scheme and table. Corrosion protection of the body is provided by the use of aluminum-magnesium alloys, which are resistant to corrosion in river and sea water. Additionally, it is envisaged to paint the outer and inner surfaces of the body with paint and varnish materials.
The passenger compartment is equipped in the front with two soft passenger seats, including one for the captain. Along the sides there are four double lifting sofas-lockers, under which there are life jackets and property. The covers of the sofas can be folded out, forming a sleeping place measuring 1800×2000 mm in the aft part of the cabin. The arrangement of armchairs and sofas is subject to change. There is an option with soft seats for all passengers. The deckhouse is made of a three-layer structure, the middle layer of which is insulation. The outer layer is made of fiberglass based on polyester resin with fiberglass reinforcing material, coated with a colored resin (gelcoat). The middle layer is made of tiled foam. The inner layer is made of fiberglass, pasted over with a lining – pile fabric.
The hovercraft is equipped with two engines of the Volga Automobile Plant VAZ-21126, with a capacity of 98 hp each. To increase the resource and reduce fuel consumption, the engines are derated to 80 hp. by reducing the maximum speed to 4800 rpm. An increase in power up to 106 hp is possible. by increasing the maximum crankshaft speed to 5800 rpm. The engine is a four-stroke, multi-point fuel injection, in-line, overhead camshaft. The engine cooling system is liquid, closed type, with forced circulation of liquid. The engine has a combined pressure and spray lubrication system. The 21126 engine is a continuation of the VAZ 21124 decimal engine, but with a 39% lighter SHPG produced by Federal Mogul, the valve holes became smaller, another timing belt with an automatic tensioner, thanks to which the problem of tightening the belt on the 124 block was solved. The Prior’s engine block itself has also undergone minor changes, such as better surface treatment, cylinder honing is now performed in accordance with the stricter requirements of Federal Mogul. The ignition system consists of individual ignition coils mounted on the cylinder head cover and spark plugs. The engine electronic control unit (ECU) controls the ignition coils. The engine uses a new automatic timing belt tensioning mechanism with newly designed rollers. As a result of the change to a Gates timing belt with a new profile, the engine uses new camshaft pulleys, a water pump pulley and a crankshaft pulley. The profile of the pulleys matches the timing belt with a semi-circular tooth. For the electronic engine control system, the controller M 7.9.7 or JANUARY 7.2 is installed.
|Type of engine||4-stroke 4-cylinder VAZ-21126|
|Number of engines, pcs.||2|
|Power, h.p. (kw)||80(59) х2|
|Maximum speed, rpm||4800|
|Working capacity, cubic cm||1597|
|Fuel-oil system||Multipoint injection|
|The specific fuel consumption of one engine, (g/kWh * h)||231|
|Motor maintenance weight, kg||115|
Flexible skirt-type craft
The amphibious qualities of the hovercraft are provided by the separation of the body from the screen due to the holding of an air cushion under the body by a flexible fence. The lift height depends on the speed of the blowers (engines) and the trim attitude. The hovercraft adopted a two-tier flexible fencing scheme with removable elements along the entire perimeter of the lower tier and with a flexible receiver in the upper tier. This scheme allows removable elements to remain elastic, that mean when passing obstacles, flexible elements deflect and let the object pass under him without resisting its impact. Only the lower segment tier, which consists of many independent elements, participates in contact with the surface.
Each element is attached to the receiver with four clamps. Replacement is simple and requires no special tools or skills. Due to the constant air flow in the airspace, the HE will retain the ability to move the hovercraft even if all removable elements are lost.
GO material – rubberized fabric based on rubber nylon. This fabric allows you to expand and take a given shape in low temperatures. The maximum achievable height of the air cushion is about 0.6 m. The height of the air cushion is measured from the supporting solid surface to the bottom of the hull
Air bubble propellers and blowers
As propellers on the hovercraft, there are two four-blade propellers of variable pitch in aerodynamic fixed nozzles. The support unit of the variable pitch propeller and the reverse mechanism are located in the pylons of each nozzle. The propeller blades are made of fiberglass composite coated with aramid. The angle of rotation of the propeller blades is controlled by direction indicators installed in the control panel. Two twin centrifugal blowers are provided as air cushion blowers. The air cushion blowers operate separately, each on its own side. The blowers are mounted on shafts supported on both sides by self-aligning bearings. The blowers are made of fiberglass, carbon fiber and aramid. Separate control of the speed of the blowers (n1 and n2) and the sectioning of the air cushion zones allow creating different pressures in the left P1 and right P2 halves. This property makes it possible to create an artificial bank, which greatly helps with maneuvers and helps to neutralize the effect of side wind gusts. In the event of a failure of the engine or the supercharger of one of the sides, the jumper between the zones is removed and the flexible fence is filled with air from the working supercharger. The hovercraft can continue to move on one supercharger.
Directional control is provided by turning the steering wheel in the helm station and rudders installed in the stream behind the propellers. Rotation of the rudders provides control torque with the center of rotation in the nose area. Provision is made for shifting propellers of variable pitch from FORWARD to REVERSE. Shifting is done both jointly and separately by pedals located at the driver’s feet. The split shift provides a control torque with the center of rotation in the stern area. The propeller speed control is provided, which provides different thrust and creates a control torque with the center of rotation in the stern area. The possibility of hovering on an air cushion at low speeds is provided by installing the propeller blades in several intermediate positions in the range of angles from full forward to full rear. Shifting of the blade of one propeller backward is provided, corresponding to the shift of the blade of the other propeller forward (work in disarray) Remote control of the power plant is performed by levers located on the control panel.
Hovercraft is being built in accordance with the Russian River Register class “R * 1.2 / 1.2 hovercraft”. This allows you to operate it for personal and business needs without the right to commercial exploitation. Number of seats up to 11 people. Swimming is allowed – GDP not higher than “P”. State Inspection of Small Vessels (SISV). Amateur rights. Currently, the term of project approval with RRP has been completed and further approval was not carried out due to the lack of demand for this service from customers. On a separate order, it is possible to reconcile the project with the River Register to obtain the right to commercial exploitation and legal transportation of passengers. Passenger – any person on board a ship, except for the captain and crew members or other persons working or having any occupation related to the activities of this ship (special personnel), as well as a child under one year old.
Hovercraft can be transported on a special trailer, in one 40-foot container, auto-trailer with a trailer length of 10 meters.
Hovercraft is equipped with the following systems: electric (12V, 2 batteries)
fuel (300 liters)
gas exhaust (stainless)
ventilation of the passenger compartment and engine compartment trimming (90 liter tanks in the bow and stern)
steering (two groups behind the nozzles, 4 rudders each)
Hovercraft is standard equipped with:
life jackets by the number of passengers
two xenon headlights on the handle
two water-air heaters for the passenger compartment from different engines
The variable-pitch propeller
The windscreen washer and wipers
The trim indicator
two on-board diagnostic computers Multitronics (engine speed, voltage, remaining fuel in tanks, coolant temperature, errors)
indicator of the angle of attack of the propeller blades; indicator “Fire” in the engine compartment
electric amplifiers the variable-pitch propeller
gullwing doors 750 mm wide
radio tape recorder, cup holders, glove boxes, cigarette lighter, ashtray, etc.