The high-speed amphibious hovercraft Neptune 23 is designed to carry up to 2.1 tons of cargo or up to 22 passengers. Hovercraft belongs to the class of “passenger” hovercraft and is designed to transport passengers across water bodies in summer or winter, including those with short-term shore exits. The boat is able to overcome smoothed ledges up to 80 cm high and not smoothed – up to 55 cm. The boat is capable of speeding on water up to 80 km / h.
Operation is permitted at an outside air temperature from -40 ° C to + 30 ° C and a maximum wind speed of up to 12 m / s at any time of the year during daylight hours. Hovercraft in all cases of load can be operated in water areas, with waves of no more than 1.2 m 1% of availability. Movement of the boat is allowed with the specified wave both in the air cushion mode and in the displacement mode. When driving on ice or snow-covered surfaces, operation is permitted on water bodies of all categories. Operation is allowed on any other flat solid surface, in extreme shallow water and swampy surface.
Main dimensions and characteristics
|Overall length of the hull, m||11.8|
|Extreme breadth of the hull (with hinged sections), m||4.3|
|Cushion height (clearance), m||0.75|
|Passenger-carrying capacity, people||22|
|Minimum crew, people||1|
|Service speed (on water), km / h||45|
|Maximum speed (on water), km / h||80|
|Service speed (on ice), km / h||50|
|Fuel reserve, l||400|
|Service fuel consumption on water, l / h||35|
|Endurance of fuel reserve, h||12|
|Safe wave height, m||1.2|
|Supervision (Option 1)||State Inspection of Small Vessels (SISV), vessel of special design up to 12 seats (hovercraft)|
|Supervision (Option 2)||River register, small up to 12 places, category * 3|
|Supervision (Option 3)||River register, passenger 22 seats, class Р * 1.2 / 1.2 hovercraft|
|Supervision (option 4)||Maritime Register, passenger 20 seats, class KM *  HSC ACV Passenger-A|
The ship’s hull is watertight, divided into 5 watertight compartments by 5 watertight bulkheads. As the material of the main hull, set, foundations, sheet and profile rolled products made of aluminum alloys are accepted. Sheet metal is used amg5m, ALL-UNION STATE STANDARD 21631-76. Profile rolled products of the AMg6M or D16T brand according to ALL-UNION STATE STANDARD 8617-75. The hull of the hovercraft is riveted (except for small parts made on welding). It provides impermeability of the outer contour of the boat and the corresponding transverse bulkheads.
The impermeability test is carried out in accordance with the test scheme and table. Corrosion protection of the hull is provided by the use of aluminum-magnesium alloys that are resistant to corrosion in river and sea water. Additionally, it is planned to paint the outer and inner surfaces of the housing with paint and varnish materials.
During the production of the hovercraft, many different variants of internal equipment were made. as standard, the passenger compartment is equipped with two soft passenger seats in the front part, including one for the captain. Along the sides there are six double lifting sofas-lockers, under which life jackets and property are located. The covers of the sofas can be unfolded, forming a sleeping place of 1800×2000 mm in the aft part of the cabin. The location of the chairs and sofas may vary. there are options with soft seats for all passengers, with folding beds and a table, with a crane, with a toilet, with a cargo platform and winches.
The cabin is made of a three-layer structure, the middle layer of which is insulation. The outer layer is made of fiberglass based on polyester resin with a fiberglass reinforcing material, covered with colored resin (gelcoat). The middle layer is made of tile foam. The inner layer is made of fiberglass, pasted with sewing – pile fabric.
The hovercraft is equipped with two engines of the American brand Cummins ISF 2.8, each with a capacity of 150 hp. An increase in power up to 175 hp is possible. by increasing the maximum crankshaft speed. A four-stroke, four-cylinder, electronic Common Rail diesel engine with in-line cylinders and common crankshaft pistons with one overhead camshaft.
The engine has a closed-type forced circulation liquid cooling system. Combined lubrication system: under pressure and spray. The Kamins 2.8 (Cummins ISF 2.8L) engine is installed on vehicles manufactured by OJSC GAZ, in particular, on commercial vehicles of the GAZelle Business and GAZelle NEXT families. Due to its prevalence, the engine is well known to services, and spare parts and consumables for it are not expensive and can be easily found in stores. Today we can safely say that this engine is the most widespread commercial diesel in Russia.
The engine is equipped with low temperature starting aids. An electric coil is provided to heat the air in the intake manifold. The fuel filter is also electrically heated. The Cummins ISF 2.8 engine has very low fuel consumption. The engines are standardly equipped with a turbocharger with an intercooler, that is, with pre-cooling of the air supplied to the charge. Thanks to the use of turbocharging, it was possible to provide high power and torque with a sufficiently small volume. At the same time, the presence of a turbine does not impair the efficiency of the engine – its fuel consumption per vehicle ranges from 8.5 to 10.3 l / 100 km, depending on the speed and operating mode.
The engine has a traditional design. It is based on a one-piece cylinder block (made of gray cast iron) and a cast head; inserted milled liners are used in the block, which facilitates cylinder repair. The crankshaft is also made of gray cast iron and is integrated with the crankshaft position sensor pulley and toothed disk. The camshaft is one, located at the top. The motor has 16 valves (4 per cylinder), made of heat-resistant steel, their rods are additionally chrome-plated. The valve drive is traditional, through rocker arms. Interestingly, all valves have the same design, but are not interchangeable. Timing drive – chain. The engine is equipped with Bosch Common Rail fuel equipment, the fuel injectors are top-mounted, they are installed in the central part of the cylinder.
This solution has greatly simplified the engine without significantly degrading its performance. In general, the Cummins ISF 2.8 is a simple, reliable and unpretentious engine with good characteristics and adapted for operation in Russian conditions. Thanks to the design features, a simple device and the use of time-tested solutions, it was possible to achieve a high resource – the manufacturer claims an engine resource of up to 500 thousand km (for a car), in practice, the engine can last longer with proper operation and maintenance. The engine is currently being manufactured at the Cummins FOTON joint venture in China.
|Type of engine||4-stroke 4-cylinder Cummins ISF 2.8s 3129T|
|Number of engines, pcs.||2|
|Power, h.p. (kw)||150(110) х2|
|Maximum speed, rpm||3200|
|Working capacity, cubic cm||2781|
|Fuel-oil system||Common Rail от Bosch|
|Maximum fuel consumption of one engine, kg / h||21|
|Motor maintenance weight, kg||214|
The amphibious qualities of the hovercraft are provided by the separation of the body from the screen due to the holding of an air cushion under the body by a flexible fence. The lift height depends on the speed of the blowers (engines) and the trim angle.
The hovercraft adopted a two-tier flexible fencing scheme with removable elements along the entire perimeter of the lower tier and with a flexible receiver in the upper tier. This scheme allows removable elements to remain elastic. Those when passing through obstacles, the flexible elements deflect and pass the object under them without resisting its impact. Only the lower segment tier, which consists of many independent elements, participates in contact with the surface.
Each element is attached to the receiver with four clamps. Replacement is simple and requires no special tools or skills. Due to the constant air flow in the airspace in dash air bubble, the flexible fencing retain the ability to move the hovercraft even if all removable elements are lost. The flexible fencing material – rubberized fabric based on rubber nylon. This fabric allows you to expand and take a given shape in low temperatures. The maximum achievable height of the air cushion is about 0.75 m. The height of the air cushion is measured from the supporting solid surface to the bottom of the hull.
Propellers and superchargers
As propellers on the hovercraft, two four-bladed propellers of variable pitch in aerodynamic non-rotating nozzles are provided. The support unit of the variable pitch screw and the reverse mechanism are located in the pylons of each nozzle. The material of the propeller blades is a composite of fiberglass with an aramid coating. The angle of rotation of the propeller blades is controlled by direction indicators installed in the control panel.
Two twin centrifugal superchargers are provided as air cushion superchargers. Airbag superchargers work separately, each on its own board. The superchargers are mounted on shafts supported on both sides by self-aligning bearings. The supercharger material is a composite of fiberglass, carbon fiber and aramid.
Separate control of supercharger revolutions (n1 and n2) and partitioning of air cushion zones allows you to create different pressures in the left P1 and right P2 halves. This property makes it possible to create an artificial roll, which greatly helps with maneuvers and helps to neutralize the effect of side gusts of wind. In case of failure of the engine or supercharger of one of the sides, the bridge between the zones is removed and the flexible fence is filled with air from the working supercharger. The hovercraft can continue to run on a single supercharger.
Directional control is provided by turning the steering wheel in the helm station and rudders installed in the stream behind the propellers. Rotation of the rudders provides control torque with the center of rotation in the nose area. Provision is made for shifting propellers of variable pitch from FORWARD to REVERSE. Shifting is done both jointly and separately by pedals located at the driver’s feet. The split shift provides a control torque with the center of rotation in the stern area.
The propeller speed control is provided, which provides different thrust and creates a control torque with the center of rotation in the stern area. The possibility of hovering on an air cushion at low speeds is provided by installing the propeller blades in several intermediate positions in the range of angles from full forward to full rear. Shifting the blade of one propeller backward is provided, corresponding to the shifting of the blade of the other propeller forward (work in disarray) Remote control of the power plant is performed by levers located on the control panel.
Hovercraft has been approved by the Russian River Register for the class “R * 1.2 / 1.2 hovercraft” and the class “undersized category * 3”. This allows you to use it in the following options: For personal and business needs without the right of commercial exploitation. Number of seats up to 12 people + cargo. Swimming is allowed – inland water-ways not higher than “P”. In winter, on ice without restrictions. State Inspection of Small Vessels (SISV). Amateur rights.
For passenger traffic on inland water-ways with the right of commercial exploitation. Number of seats up to 23 people. Swimming is permitted – inland water-ways not higher than “P”. In winter, on ice without restrictions. Registration of the River Register. Professional rights. For passenger transportation MP, inland water-ways with the right of commercial exploitation. Number of seats up to 12 people.
Sailing permitted – inland water-ways not higher than “P” or MP 6 miles from the place of refuge. In winter, on ice without limits. Registration of the River Register. Amateur rights. A place of refuge is any naturally or artificially protected water area that can be used to shelter a vessel in the event of circumstances that threaten its safety. For a hovercraft, this is any land area where a vessel can go, i.e. actually coastal sailing.
Passenger – any person on board a ship, except for the captain and crew members or other persons working or having any occupation related to the activities of this ship (special personnel), as well as a child under one year old.
Hovercraft can be transported on a special trailer, in one 40-foot container + one 20-foot container, an auto-trailer with a trailer length of 13 meters
Hovercraft is equipped with the following systems:
electric (12V, 2 batteries)
fuel (400 liters)
charge air cooling (turbocharging, intercooler)
gas exhaust (stainless)
ventilation of the passenger compartment and engine compartment
trimming (200 liter tanks in the bow and stern)
steering (two groups behind nozzles, 4 rudders each)
Hovercraft is standard equipped with: life jackets by the number of passengers two xenon headlights on the handle two water-air heaters from different engines the variable-pitch propeller windscreen washer and wipers trim indicator two on-board diagnostic computers Multitronics (engine speed, voltage, remaining fuel in tanks, coolant temperature, errors) indicator of the angle of attack of the propeller blades indicator “Fire” in the engine compartment electric amplifiers the variable-pitch propeller dehumidification pumps roof cargo hatch gull wing doors 850 mm wide radio tape recorder, cup holders, glove boxes, cigarette lighter, ashtray, etc.